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Overview

Diabetes mellitus is commonly known as diabetes . This disease has no cure for it’s eradication but it can be controlled by regular intake of prescribed medicines, regular exercise and prevention of certain habits as advised by the health practitioner.

We eat food to gain energy; the food that we consume is ultimately broken down into sugars known as glucose which provides energy to the body for different kind of activities. Once glucose is formed, insulin which is a hormone present in the bloodstream takes up the glucose and uses it to provide energy to the cells.

 

Symptoms

Diabetes mellitus symptoms and treatment are usually increased thirst and dry mouth feeling, excessive urination, fatigue, weight loss, feeling hungry and blurred vision. These conditions do not go away even after taking adequate rest and diagnosis must be done.

When a person suffers from diabetes, his body is either not able to produce enough insulin for the uptake of glucose or the insulin is not utilized fully to absorb glucose; both conditions may also occur. This leads to the accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream, causing an increase in blood sugar level, hence diabetes is commonly known as “sugar disease” as well. High level of sugar in blood can damage your kidneys, heart and other organs. Diabetes if not controlled , in the long term usually leads to kidney failure, blindness, heart diseases, stroke and ultimately death.

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Common types of diabetes mellitus are:

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

 

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in childhood; it is an autoimmune disease in which the body cells attack the pancreas and thus render it useless to produce the hormone insulin which is required for the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream. It may be a genetic disease in some cases. The A1C blood test is performed to estimate the sugar level in the blood.

Type 1 diabetes can be treated by injecting insulin in the body via syringes, insulin pens, jet injectors or insulin pump. Apart from diabetes mellitus type 1 treatment, it can be managed by proper diet intake, routine test for blood sugar level, exercise etc.

 

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the most well known form of the disease; a large number of adults suffer from this disease, yet it is a milder form of diabetes in comparison to type 1 diabetes.

The most common cause of Type 2 diabetes is obesity.In this disease, the pancreas do produce insulin, but it is either inadequate or not fully utilized; both cases cause an increase in the blood sugar level. It is diagnosed by conducting the A1C blood test. Frequent blood tests are required to be followed at regular intervals in order to detect the effect of the medicines that have been prescribed.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 treatment also follows the same treatment guidelines as type: It requires change in a diet plan, exercise, oral medications and injecting of insulin via syringes.

 

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is kidney damage that results due to diabetes; both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to it. Kidney damage is a common side effect of diabetes. It develops slowly and can take quite some years for the kidneys to be damaged. High level of sugar in the blood causes bruises to the glomeruli in the kidney and damages them in the long term thus, damaging the kidneys.

Early diabetes mellitus diagnosis and treatment can help to control the damage inflicted to the kidneys. Blood and urine tests are performed for its diagnosis. Diabetic nephropathy treatment involves controlling both blood sugar levels as well as blood pressure via oral medications. In chronic cases, kidney transplant becomes necessary.

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