Chronic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination of central nervous system. It usually presents with recurrent, subacute, focal neurological symptoms that improve to some extent hours, weeks or months.
Immune mechanism and inflammation play a role in pathogenesis but no single autoantigen, autoantibody or infectious agent has these far been associated with multiple sclerosis.
Genetic and environmental factors also play a role
Low sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency, obesity and smoking are factors with strong evidence for multiple sclerosis risk.
MRI is the investigation of choice. It shows demyelinating patches in multiple sclerosis, typical areas are periventricular, juxtacortical, spinal cord and intracranial.
Visual Evoked Potential, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands aid in the diagnosis.
Despite the increasing number potency of multiple sclerosis, relapses remain one of the unpredictable and disconcerting disease aspects for many patients with multiple sclerosis.
The expanding range of relapse treatments now includes oral/iv steroids and plasma exchange.
Treatments to prevent relapses include interferons, disease modifying agents like dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod and teriflunomide.
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